Harald zur Hausen
Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Slightly more than 20% of the global cancer incidence is linked to viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. Their discovery permitted novel approaches to cancer prevention either by vaccination (Hepatitis B and human papillomaviruses) or by therapeutic interference with persistent infections (HIV, Hepatitis C, Helicobacter pylori, Schistosoma and liver flukes). These developments encourage further research on a potential involvement of other infections in cancers, not yet linked to exogenous agents. We presently study the putative role of novel viruses in cancers of the colon and the breast, but also in multiple sclerosis (MS). Epidemiological studies suggested a possible role of infectious events in these malignancies and MS, probably due to consumption of bovine infected meat and dairy products. A number of novel single-stranded DNAs have been isolated from bovine serum and milk, but also from individual multiple sclerosis lesions. They are presently being analysed for a possible role in these cancers and neurological diseases.
Professor Emeritus, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between different types of organoboron compounds and various organic halides or triflates in the presence of base provides a powerful and general methodology for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. The (sp3)C-B compounds (alkylboron compounds) and (sp2)C-B compounds (such as aryl- and 1-alkenylboron derivatives) readily cross-couple with organic electrophiles to give coupled products selectively in high yields. Recently, the (sp)C-B compounds (1-alkynylboron derivatives) have been also observed to react with organic electrophiles to produce expected cross-coupled products.
Such coupling reactions offer several advantages:
As one of defects of the reaction, one would point out the use of bases. However, we could overcome the difficulty by using suitable solvent systems and adequate bases.
Consequently, these coupling reactions have been actively utilized not only in academic laboratories but also in industrial processes including pharmaceutical (antihypertensives, anticancer drugs, antiHIV drugs, antibiotics etc) and agrochemical industries, and liquid crystal and OELD production as well.
In this lecture, the overview of the coupling reaction will be discussed.
Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798;
Construction Biotechnology is a new scientific and engineering discipline with such major directions as development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction. The microbial polysaccharides and microbial biomass are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are mainly bioaggregation, biocementation, and bioclogging of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes so proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.
Okezie, C.E.A., Nweze, N. O. and Okafor, C. U.
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
The global rise in industrialization and population has increased the demand for energy. The high economic cost and environmental problems associated with the use of fossil fuels (petroleum and coal) and nuclear sources of energy that are not renewable has necessitated the quest for alternative sources of energy. Renewable energy sources are essential for environmental sustainability. Algae as a renewable resource have a myriad of advantages of being readily available; not competing with food crops for land as they can tolerate marginal lands and waste water not suitable for conventional agriculture; yielding more biodiesel than oil seed crops per hectare of cultivated land; having higher photosynthetic efficiency, 10 to 50 times greater than terrestrial plants. The secret to their success is that under controlled conditions they yield neutral lipids in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) that can be easily transesterified into alkyl esters (biodiesel). Also, anaerobic digestion of algal biomass yields methane gas and biohydrogen can be produced photobiologically from algal biomass. Apart from producing alternative energy sources, algal farms sequester and recycle carbon thereby mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Algae are cultivated in commercial scale in “raceway” ponds and photobioreactors.
Keywords: Biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen, carbohydrates, lipids, syngas, triacylglycerols.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (UP) – 211004, India
Industrial energy audits are commonly used for two purposes: (A) bench-marking i.e. obtaining aggregate energy consumption and carbon emissions per unit production for inter-industry comparison as well as for observing historical trends of energy consumption within an industry; (B) identifying energy conservation opportunities by examining energy and material flow through various stages of the production process and equipment.
The proposed presentation focuses on energy conservation opportunities offered by looking at the overall energy supply and utilization in an industrial plant. This systems approach does not belittle the significance of improving the energy efficiency of various processes and individual equipment involved, it rather supplements such energy conservation efforts as illustrated through the case studies presented for two agro-processing industries i.e. milk processing and paper manufacturing using timber.
(A) CASE-STUDY ON MILK PROCESSING INDUSTRY
The objective of this study is to explore the technical feasibility of decentralized energy systems along with associated energy saving opportunities for a commercial milk processing plant in India, the largest producer of milk in the world. Some energy saving methods are already employed in the existing plant so as to make it more energy-efficient e.g. hot water recovery from de-superheating employed with the ammonia refrigeration plant. However, this study focuses on some energy system alternatives that may replace the existing system with a different configuration, with a view to make the dairy industry grid-independent and more energy efficient. It is proposed that the plant should have its own power generating unit along with heat recovery for energy efficiency. Hence, a CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system is proposed utilizing a compression chiller or an absorption chiller. Three different configurations of the CCHP system have been analysed. The processing energy and the running cost of various alternative systems has been evaluated and is followed by a comparative study of these with the existing system so as to indicate energy saving possibilities (ranging between 20-50%) depending on the requirement, location and various other factors.
(B) CASE-STUDY ON PAPER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
With a view to identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities, this case-study presents results obtained from energy auditing of a paper manufacturing industry (Orient Paper Mills) in Amlai, Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh, India using forest timber as a raw-material. The specific energy consumption of the typical paper industry in India was evaluated as 34.3 GJ /ton paper and CO2 intensity as 3.4 tons CO2/ton paper. Again, it was observed that some specific energy conservation measures at the equipment level (e.g. replacement of steam driven boiler feed pump with electric pump, replacement of existing low efficiency induced-draft (ID) fans with new high efficiency ID fans, etc.) lead to electricity saving potential of about 5% with a payback period of less than three years.
However, major gains are possible by re-configuring the energy supply system as follows: Replacement of coalfired co-generation system by natural gas fired combined cycle (Gas turbine + Steam turbine) system with passout condensing steam turbine would help the industry by producing extra power for export while fulfilling its own energy requirement on-site with significant potential benefits. Further, natural gas use will reduce carbon emissions as compared to coal. The plant therefore can also earn carbon credits through such an initiative.
The author gratefully acknowledges the help and support received from the Parag Dairy plant at Allahabad (UP), India and the Orient Paper Mills at Amlai, Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh, India in obtaining the energy use and production data from their plant.
Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences “Acad.G. Bonchev” Str., 26, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria;
The aim is to present two new mathematical models of continuous processes for simultaneous hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) production by anaerobic biodegradation of organic wastes in a cascade of two bioreactors (BRs).First model consists of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and one algebraic equation (first BR) and includes one bacterial population growing on xilose and producing acetate and H2. The Monod specific growth rate is adopted for both of BRs. For both of the models CH4 production from acetate produced in the 1st BR is separated in the second BR and is modelled by two ODEs and one algebraic equation. It is proved that the static characteristics of both BRs (producing H2 or CH4) possess maxima with respect to the control input (dilution rate) in their admissible ranges. The ratio of the maxima defines the optimal ratio of working volumes of the two BRs. The second model presents an extension of the first one: the biochemical processes in the first BR includes biodegradation of organic wastes, hydrolysis, acidogenesis and acetogenisis with H2 production and consists of 10 ODEs and one algebraic equation. The model is developed by reducing the well known Anaerobic Digester Model 1 basic structure and results from our experiments in laboratory and pilot scale conditions. The theoretical studies are devoted to optimizing H2 and CH4 production. Numerical simulations are presented to confirm the theoretical results.
L. Kabaivanova, I. Simeonov, D. Denchev, V. Hubenov, S. Mihaylova, E. Chorukova and E.
Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria;
Biotechnological exploitation of lignocellulosic wastes is considered promising for sustainable and environmentally-friendly energy provision because of the abundant availability of these renewable sources. The aim was development of an effective technology for anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic wastes for methane production. Substrate constituents are highly resistant to biochemical conversion, so chemical pretreatment with NaOH, NH4OH in combination with amphyphylic substance Polyethylene glycol-4000 and biological pretreatment with fungal strains were applied. Experiments were carried out at different experimental conditions in laboratory bioreactors, as well as on a pilot scale. Wheat straw and cattle manure were involved in a ratio 65:35% and different organic loads. Pre-treatment lead to breakage in hemicelluloses and cellulose structure, reduction of crystallinity and increase of porosity that can significantly improve accessibility of enzymes. Cellulose quantity before and after treatment and the ratio between cellulose and the amount of volatile solids was changed. Infra red spectroscopy revealed lower peaks for the bonds, characteristic for lignin after treatment. As a result, an increased methane yield was realized for a shorter period by application of pretreatment techniques (highest after biological pretreatment) compared to the processes with untreated wheat straw.
Takfarinas Idres, Karim Benhenia, Nassima Bedrani, Fella Amari and Fatma Zohra Yakoub
National Superior High Veterinary, School of Algiers, Algiers, Algeria;
Short term conservation of sheep semen is a process that will extend the life of sperm, however this life remains limited, which reduces the development of artificial insemination in sheep, only a suitable storage media manage to overcome this constraint. The objective of this experiment was to test refrigeration at 4 ° C in epididymal semen ram, relying on three storage media: based egg yolk, 5% glycerol and 15% glycerol. Our method of collection was given to the retrograde flushing of the epididymis, the semen collected is evaluated and then diluted and tested in 04 conservation community, a witness, consisting of media (Tris Acid Fructose citrique), the second comprises the basal media and 20% egg yolk and the last two are the basal media, 20% of egg yolk and a glycerol concentration of 5% and 15% respectively. Later we mixed 1 volume of diluted semen with 9 volumes of each storage media. Finally, we evaluated the individual motility and membrane integrity (HOST) of the four environments: 0 h, 6 h, 18 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 56 h and 72 h. Our results reveal that the maximum period the seed of conservation without the addition of cryoprotectants is 18h (HOST: 65.66%), however the media containing only non-penetrating cryoprotectant (yolk) saves acceptable quality semen for 36 h (HOST: 58.12%). The joint use of a cyoprotecteur penetrating and non-penetrating, the concentration of the latter 5% allows the protection of the quality of epididymal semen until 36h (HOST: 58.12%), while only 15% glycerol significant toxicity occurs from 18h refrigeration (HOST: 40%). We conclude that the addition of a penetrating and non-penetrating cryoprotectant optimizes seed shelf life and that the concentration of 5% glycerol appears to be the proper fit.
Sheep semen, sperm, refrigeration, glycerol.
Ramakrishna Mission Medical Unit Belur Math, Howrah, West Bengal, India;
Acne is a common disease of the teenage population causing cosmetic disfigurements as well as many psychological problems in the affected persons. The main pathogenesis of the disease is the involvements of the oil glands at the base of hair follicles. The clinical lesions are usually papules and pustules over face, forehead, chest and back. In many cases conventional treatment fails and the patients become helpless in this condition. Thus in this study a possible curative role of homeopathic medicines was explored in such cases based on a pilot study done earlier at our Institute. A group of 400 such cases were enrolled in the study after consideration of all ethical issues and following inclusion and exclusion criteria formulated at our Institute. There were also a control group of 30 cases where only placebo was given which were similar in appearance containing only vehicle of the medicine. Only a single oral homeopathic medicine out of two medicines “sulphur” or “tuberculinum” was given in the test group based on clinical case history as observed in the pilot study. No local application was used in the study. Out of 400 cases 387 (96.75%) cases showed significant improvements within 6 months of treatment including cure in many cases within 3 months. The control group showed no changes even after 6 months. The results indicate a promising role of homeopathic medicines in such difficult cases.
Mona Ismail Gomaa, Asmaa Owis, Rabab Mohammed, Abeer A.A. Salama and Mona Hettaa
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt;
Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the airways associated with a hyperresponsiveness of the immune system. According to WHO about 300 million people worldwide suffered from asthma.
Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is one of the largest families of flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7,500 species. The plants produce large number of diverse secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, tannins, polyphenols and flavonoids. Various species of the genus Euphorbia are used for the treatment of cancer, diarrhea and bronchial asthma.
The aim of this work is testing the activity of Euphorbia grandialata as anti-asthmatic natural agents.
The total alcohol extract of Euphorbia grandialata was tested in vivo after induction of asthma in rats. Lung content of TNF-α, Ig-E, MDA and GSH was determined in blood samples of all rats after 24 hrs. Assessment of early airway reaction was performed 12 min. after the last challenge as Tidal volume (TV) and Peak expiratory flow (PEF).
Results showed that Euphorbia grandialata significantly decreased TNF-α, Ig-E & MDA and significantly increased GSH, TV & PEF as compared with OVA (Challenge) group.
It could be concluded that Euphorbia grandialata could be of great merit as natural anti-asthmatic agent.
Euphorbiaceae, asthma, flavonoids.
Jaleel Kareem Ahmed
College of Materials Engineering, Babylon University, Iraq
Chlorophyll extracted from celery using 50% v/v water – methyl alcohol as a solvent. By this method the concentration of chlorophyll was 22.6% with yellowish-green color. This solution showed strongly absorption at 400 – 210 nm and maximum was at the end of ultra-violet region. This absorption appeared in water, methyl alcohol, and acetone, but strongest absorption was in water. No emission spectra was detected in the ultra-violet and visible regions which means that chlorophyll absorbs radiation and dissipate it as a heat. Several samples of the above solution was radiated by gamma ray from cesium-137 with energy of 0.7 Mev for different intervals (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 24 hours). The color of the solution disappeared after two hours radiation while the pH decreases from 6.38 for unradiated to radiated celery solution 4.17 after 24 hours radiation with liberation of carbon dioxide which indicates destroying of chlorophyll but the absorption at 400 – 210 nm still exists which reflects the high stability of the group magnesium-four nitrogen atoms (tetrapyrrole) its energy about 3500 kJ mol-1. The resulted carbon dioxide carries by hemoglobin to expel via lungs similar to that produces by biological activity of the body. Calculation showed that the dosage of two hours radiation in which color of the solution disappeared (Compton effect) was 5.6 killogray (1 gray = 1 Joule per 1 kg sample) absorbed by chlorophyll before color disappear is enough to kills 1120 people weight 75 kg each within 14 days when the whole bodies exposure at one time.The samples glass containers and their white plastic covers of the radiated samples for 4 and 24 hours changed their color to violet may be due to the rearrangement of their physical structures. Others interesting points will appear in the full article. Capsules used as carrier for the chlorophyll to take it by children.
Keywords:Chlorophyll, Gamma Ray, pH, Celery, Energy.
Hong-Qing Ling, Hui Liu, Biao Ma, Hua Sun, Zhensheng Li, Aimin Zhang, Daowen Wang,
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, is a hexaploid containing A, B and D genomes. Due to its complex polyploidy nature and large genome size (17 Gb), the genetic and functional analysis of bread wheat is extremely challenging. Triticum urartu is the progenitor of wheat A genome. It plays a central role in wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement because the A genome is the basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploidy wheats. We sequenced T. urartu accession G1812 using a whole-genome shotgun strategy on the Illumina HiSequation (2000) platform, and generated a draft genome of wheat A genome (Ling et al., 2013, Nature 496: 87-90). To completely sequence the wheat A genome, we constructed 3 BAC libraries and created BAC contigs using the whole genome profiling technology. Based on BAC contig data, we selected 47,223 BACs by MTP approach, and sequenced them. Additionally, we also generated >80 G sequence data by whole genome sequencing using PacBio RS II. The sequence assembly has been finished and anchored on their corresponding chromosome with a high resolution SNP map. In conclusion, completing the genome sequence of T. urartu will provide a diploid reference for the analysis of polyploidy wheat genomes, and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat to meet the future challenges of global food security and sustainable agriculture.
Ocular Surface Center, Cullen Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin Street, NC-205, Houston, TX 77030, USA;
Tissue engineering holds great promise for corneal transplantation to treat the blinding corneal diseases. There is a pressing need for advances in corneal tissue engineering due to an increasing shortage of donor cornea tissue. This study revealed novel strategies to isolate corneal epithelial stem cells based on their signature markers and signaling pathways, and developed a new generation of bioengineered corneal equivalents that simulate native human cornea with enriched stem cells. The isolated cell populations displayed undifferentiated phenotype, high colony forming efficiency and greater proliferative capacity with BrdU-label retaining slow-cycling stem cells. These stem/progenitor cells grew well on the donor corneal stromal lamella, prepared by FDA approved Horizon Epikeratome system. The corneal stroma was found to promote progenitor cell expansion and differentiation. An optically transparent and stratified epithelium was rapidly generated on the stromal substrate and displayed native-like morphology and structure with basal cells expressing stem/progenitor cell markers ABCG2 and p63. This corneal constructs were survival well after xeno-transplanted in the nude mouse back. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that a novel corneal constructs have been bioengineered using isolated limbal stem cells and natural corneal stromal lamella, which simulate native human cornea and are suitable for corneal reconstruction.
Hazim Jabbar Shah Ali Al-Daraji and Sabah A. Al-Shemmary
Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq;
The success of an artificial insemination program in ostriches is highly dependent on the yield of viable semen. We, therefore, tested the effect of collection method (Massage, dummy or teaser) on semen quality of male ostriches. Male and female ostriches selected for training were from a breeding flock consisting of 90 adult ostriches (3 to 7 years old). The males used in training for massage, dummy or teaser were nine with 3 males for each method. Semen characteristics were evaluated fortnightly for three consecutive months from all males involved in all semen collection methods. Semen quality traits involved in this study were ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, and total number of spermatozoa, mass motility, individual motility and percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and abnormal acrosomes. Results revealed that using teaser female method for collect the semen from male ostriches recorded the highest values (p ≤ 0.05) of ejaculate volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, mass motility, and individual motility and the lowest values (p ≤ 0.05) of percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and abnormal acrosomes during all periods of experiment and as regards the total means of these traits followed by the results of dummy method while massage method recorded the lowest values for these traits. In conclusion, in the ostrich, collecting semen during mating (teaser or dummy) appears to yield better quality of semen than when the manual massage is used. The teaser and dummy methods are reliable, yield quality ejaculates and give reproducible results.
Collection method, semen quality, ostrich.